Use caution when harvesting forages after frost

first_imgShare Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Several forage species can be extremely toxic soon after a frost because they contain compounds called cyanogenic glucosides that are converted quickly to prussic acid (i.e. hydrogen cyanide) in freeze-damaged plant tissues. Others species have an increased risk of causing bloat when grazed after a frost, those are discussed at the end of this article.Species that can develop toxic levels of prussic acid after frost include annual grasses in the sorghum family, Johnsongrass, shattercane, chokecherry, black cherry, indiangrass, and elderberry. It is always a good idea to check areas where wild cherry trees grow after a storm and pick up and discard any fallen limbs to prevent animals from grazing on the leaves and twigs. The potential toxicity after frost varies by species as follows: ·         Sudangrass varieties = low to intermediate in cyanide poisoning potential·         Sudangrass hybrids = intermediate potential·         Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids and forage sorghums = intermediate to high·         Grain sorghum = high to very high·         Piper sudangrass = low prussic acid poisoning potential·         Pearl millet and foxtail millet = rarely cause toxicityAnimals can die within minutes if they consume forage with high concentrations of prussic acid. Prussic acid interferes with oxygen transfer in the blood stream of the animal, causing it to die of asphyxiation. Before death, symptoms include excess salivation, difficult breathing, staggering, convulsions, and collapse. Ruminants are more susceptible to prussic acid poisoning than horses or swine because cud chewing and rumen bacteria help release the cyanide from plant tissue. Plants growing under high nitrogen levels or in soils deficient in phosphorus or potassium will be more likely to have high prussic acid poisoning potential. After frost damage, cyanide levels will likely be higher in fresh forage as compared with silage or hay. This is because cyanide is a gas and dissipates as the forage is wilted and dried for making silage or dry hay. Young, rapidly growing plants of species that contain cyanogenic glucosides will have the highest levels of prussic acid. After a frost, cyanide is more concentrated in young leaves and tillers than in older leaves or stems. New growth of sorghum species following a non-killing frost is dangerously high in cyanide. Pure stands of indiangrass can have lethal levels of cyanide if they are grazed when the plants are less than 8 inches tall. Grazing PrecautionsThe following guidelines will help you avoid danger to your livestock this fall when feeding species with prussic acid poisoning potential:·         Do not graze on nights when frost is likely. High levels of toxic compounds are produced within hours after a frost, even if it was a light frost. ·         Do not graze after a killing frost until plants are dry, which usually takes 5 to 7 days.·         After a non-killing frost, do not allow animals to graze for two weeks because the plants usually contain high concentrations of toxic compounds.·         New growth may appear at the base of the plant after a non-killing frost. If this occurs, wait for a hard, killing freeze, then wait another 10 to 14 days before grazing the new growth.·         Don’t allow hungry or stressed animals to graze young growth of species with prussic acid potential. To reduce the risk, feed ground cereal grains to animals before turning them out to graze.·         Use heavy stocking rates (4-6 head of cattle/acre) and rotational grazing to reduce the risk of animals selectively grazing leaves that can contain high levels of prussic acid.·         Never graze immature growth or short regrowth following a harvest or grazing (at any time of the year). Graze or greenchop sudangrass only after it is 15 to 18 inches tall. Sorghum-sudangrass should be 24 to 30 inches tall before grazing.·         Do not graze wilted plants or plants with young tillers.GreenchopGreen-chopping frost-damaged plants will lower the risk compared with grazing directly, because animals are less likely to selectively graze damaged tissue. Stems in the forage dilute the high prussic acid content that can occur in leaves. However, the forage can still be toxic, so feed greenchop with great caution after a frost. Also, always feed greenchopped forage of species containing cyanogenic glucosides within a few hours, and don’t leave greenchopped forage in wagons or feedbunks overnight.Hay and silage are saferPrussic acid content in the plant decreases dramatically during the hay drying process and the forage should be safe once baled as dry hay. The forage can be mowed anytime after a frost if you are making hay. It is very rare for dry hay to contain toxic levels of prussic acid. However, if the hay was not properly cured and dried before baling, it should be tested for prussic acid content before feeding to livestock.Forage with prussic acid potential that is stored as silage is generally safe to feed. To be extra cautious, wait 5 to 7 days after a frost before chopping for silage. If the plants appear to be drying down quickly after a killing frost, it is safe to ensile sooner. Delay feeding silage for 8 weeks after ensiling. If the forage likely contained high levels of cyanide at the time of chopping, hazardous levels of cyanide might remain and the silage should be analyzed before feeding. Freezing also slows down metabolism in all plants that might result in nitrate accumulation in plants that are still growing, especially grasses like oats, millet, and sudangrass.  This build-up usually isn’t hazardous to grazing animals, but green chop or hay cut right after a freeze can be more dangerous. Species That Can Cause BloatForage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers have an increased risk of bloat when grazed one or two days after a hard frost. The bloat risk is highest when grazing pure legume stands, and least when grazing stands having mostly grass.The safest management is to wait a few days after a killing frost before grazing pure legume stands – wait until the forage begins to dry from the frost damage. It is also a good idea to make sure animals have some dry hay before being introduced to lush fall pastures that contain significant amounts of legumes. You can also swath your legume-rich pasture ahead of grazing and let animals graze dry hay in the swath.  Bloat protectants like poloxalene can be fed as blocks or mixed with grain. While this an expensive supplement, it does work well when animals eat a uniform amount each day.last_img read more

Missing Cello Returned All Strings Attached

first_img Updated: 9:12 PM KUSI Newsroom, 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek  . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) – Last week, a one-of-a-kind cello belonging to the famous musician John Walz went missing from his hotel room.RELATED STORY- Rare $100,000 cello stolen from Mission Valley hotel roomThe 100 thousand dollar instrument was then found by another musician in Downtown San Diego on Friday night.The Chula Vista man who found it saw the instrument lying under a bush and took it home, not knowing the backstory.His mother said she recognized the cello and found a way to reach John. When he found out, he made sure to get the cello back to Walz without a scratch. Missing Cello Returned, All Strings Attached August 13, 2018center_img KUSI Newsroom Posted: August 13, 2018 Categories: Local San Diego News, Trending FacebookTwitterlast_img read more

Time to think about the best watch for back to school

first_img Sarah Tew/CNET Apple Watch Series 4 reading • Time to think about the best watch for back to school Apple revamped the whole feel of its watch a year ago, adding a larger screen and some extras like ECG to spot-check your heart rhythm, or fall detection. You could also just get the older Series 3 and still have GPS, music, on-wrist Apple Pay and speakerphone functions. Apple Watch is absolutely the best way to stay connected on your wrist, and it’s a fun fitness companion. But its limited battery life and higher price, and need for an iPhone to use, might not fit everyone. (And again, you should wait to see what Apple announces in September!)A note on pricing: For the Series 4, don’t pay more than $350 for the 40mm version, or $380 for the 44mm (with standard bands and no cellular). That’s $50 off the Apple Store price, and the general “street price” for these models. For the Series 3, you want to get the 38mm for $200 or less, the 42mm for $230 or less — that’s $80 off list price. See at Amazon 1 Fitbit Versa Lite Read about the Garmin Vivoactive 3 Comment Aug 30 • Hate subscription software? Photoshop Elements and Premiere Elements are on sale for $60 each Read about Fitbit’s latest trackers Read the Amazfit Bip review Aug 29 • Best college laptops for 2019 If you’re a serious runner who wants something with longer battery life for GPS, Garmin’s smartwatch might be for you. It lasts about 13 hours on standalone GPS, or a week for everyday on-wrist use. A step-up model offers music, if you think you’d want that. Aug 29 • Our favorite back-to-school picks for 2019 Fitbit’s attempt at a smartwatch works best as a casual way to track stats and load a variety of crazy watch faces. It can be worn while swimming (but only the step-up regular Versa can do swim tracking), has a longer battery life (lasting four days) so it can track sleep, gets phone notifications, and tracks heart rate, but it doesn’t have GPS (you can use your phone’s GPS to track runs, though). Still, for everyday fitness, it’s an excellent budget choice at around $160. But again, you can also wait to see if any price drops or updates come in the fall. Amazfit Bip Read the Samsung Galaxy Watch Active review Josh Miller/CNET See at Amazon Wearable Tech Angela Lang/CNET Fitbit Fitness Apple Share your voice See at Amazon Aug 29 • Save up to $500 on Microsoft Surface laptops and tablets Samsung may also have a new watch soon, so let’s see what happens. But the version that arrived in the spring is a great, affordable, full-featured $200 watch that can do almost anything, and pairs well with Android phones. Samsung’s fitness tracking features are also a lot better than you might think. Samsung Galaxy Watch Active Samsung Galaxy Watch Active and Apple Watch Series 4. Angela Lang/CNET School is closer than you think, and odds are, you’ll be running around a lot once you’re back. Something useful on your wrist could help, as long as you know what you want to use it for. Smartwatches and fitness trackers can be fantastic companions for a busy campus life, from the obviously popular Apple Watch to social fitness companions like Fitbit. Whether you value staying connected to your phone, high-performance fitness tracking, or a little helpful motivation on a budget, here are some solid picks.These all come with one giant caveat, however: Students may wish to ask for an IOU for now. That’s because Apple is expected to release its newest watches in the fall — and other brands may well follow. That said, if you need something now, here are our top picks.Note that CNET may get a share of revenue from the sale of the products featured on this page.   See at Amazon Back-to-School Tech Gift Guide Best laptops for college students: We’ve got an affordable laptop for every student. Best live TV streaming services: Ditch your cable company but keep the live channels and DVR. Garmin Vivoactive 3 The Bip is affordable, and its battery life and always-on screen are great. It’s almost like a modern version of a Casio watch. The phone app feels a little off-brand compared to Samsung, Fitbit, Google and Apple’s apps, but it’s fine. The best part of Bip is how long the battery life is (weeks), and how it can be worn anywhere, even swimming. The Bip can do some basic fitness tracking, but it’s great as a casual watch that can also get phone notifications. And it’s usually $80 or less.Read: Apple Watch vs. Amazfit Bip See All • See at Amazon Sarah Tew/CNET Tags Andrew Hoyle/CNET Read the Apple Watch Series 4 reviewlast_img read more

US presidents eradefining summits

first_imgUS president Donald Trump speaks during a news conference after his meeting with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un at the Capella Hotel on Sentosa island in Singapore on 12 June 2018. Photo: ReutersDonald Trump hailed his meeting with Kim Jong Un as the start of a process that would rid North Korea of its nuclear weapons.While experts on North Korea were largely underwhelmed immediately after the summit, most agreed that the very fact of their having met was potentially significant and could play out over the coming years.Previous American presidents have also reached out to long-term foes, holding what turned out to be legacy-defining meetings.Here are two of the most significant summits:- Reagan and Gorbachev, 1986 -Following a decades-long Cold War arms race that saw the United States and the Soviet Union amass tens of thousands of nuclear warheads, the two superpowers decided to sit down in October 1986 and discuss a radical proposal: the elimination of their nuclear arsenals.US president Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev met in Iceland’s capital in a bid to reach an agreement. The Reykjavik summit lasted two days but the talks collapsed. Washington refused to roll back development of its “Star Wars” missile defence project, which was unacceptable to the Kremlin.In the years to come, however, the summit came to be seen as the harbinger of significant de-escalation. It led to a treaty the next year under which both Cold War powers would eliminate their short- and intermediate-range nuclear missiles. Thousands of these weapons were scrapped in what was the first major weapons reduction by the rivals.his handout photo taken on 12 June 2018 and released by The Straits Times shows US President Donald Trump (R) and North Korea`s leader Kim Jong Un (L) looking on as documents are exchanged between US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo (2nd R) and the North Korean leader`s sister Kim Yo Jong (2nd L) at a signing ceremony during their historic US-North Korea summit, at the Capella Hotel on Sentosa island in Singapore. Photo: AFPDespite the failure to reach an agreement, Reykjavik is seen by many as a turning point in the Cold War. Gorbachev continued to push through with internal reforms he had started since coming to power, and the Soviet Union eventually collapsed in 1991.- Nixon and China, 1972 -The United States broke off ties with China when the communists, led by Mao Zedong, took over the country in 1949. The relationship remained in limbo for almost two decades, during which their forces squared off in the Korean and Vietnam conflicts.Then Richard Nixon won the 1968 US presidential election and decided to reach out to Beijing.It started with secret contacts to lay the groundwork for formal contact, including a covert trip by Nixon’s national security adviser Henry Kissinger in 1971.A year later — in February 1972 — Nixon flew to China in what is widely considered one of the most important geopolitical events of the 20th century. The US leader met with the top Chinese leadership, including Mao and premier Zhou Enlai.It kicked off formal contacts that led to full diplomatic ties in December 1978, and Washington withdrawing recognition from Taiwan. Nixon’s gamble is also seen by many as catalysing the end of communist China’s isolation and opening up to the rest of the world.last_img