Categories: Local San Diego News FacebookTwitter October 24, 2018 Steve Bosh Public unions say recent ruling violates 1st Amendment rights 00:00 00:00 spaceplay / pause qunload | stop ffullscreenshift + ←→slower / faster ↑↓volume mmute ←→seek . seek to previous 12… 6 seek to 10%, 20% … 60% XColor SettingsAaAaAaAaTextBackgroundOpacity SettingsTextOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundSemi-TransparentOpaqueTransparentFont SettingsSize||TypeSerif MonospaceSerifSans Serif MonospaceSans SerifCasualCursiveSmallCapsResetSave SettingsSAN DIEGO (KUSI) — In the next few weeks, a lawsuit will be filed in California to force the state’s public sector unions to comply with a recent supreme court ruling that says union dues and fees are a violation of worker’s First Amendment rights, because a majority of the funds collected go to political activities.According to Mark Janis, who filed the suit, the ruling means everybody is now out of the public sector unions.This is a blow to California where the unions collect $900 million in dues and fees.It could decimate their ranks and their income. But the unions are resisting the ruling, and will use state labor laws and contracts to delay it’s implementation.Despite the court’s ruling, this is a huge fight, and it will not be settled anytime soon. Posted: October 24, 2018 Steve Bosh,
3 Chevrolet CorvetteMoving up from the 10th-place slot last year is the 2019 Chevrolet Corvette. While we’ve all been ogling the new mid-engine Corvette, it’s easy to forget what a performance bargain the current-generation ‘Vette is. From the base trim to the Grand Sport to the bonkers ZR1, the Corvette is an American icon.My preference is for the Grand Sport, which strikes a perfect balance between everyday drivability and canyon-carving performance. The 6.2-liter V8 puts out 460 horsepower and 465 pound-feet of torque. You can get it with a seven-speed manual or eight-speed automatic transmission, but the kicker is the borrowed chassis and aero parts from the beefier Z06. Like I said, perfect balance. The Corvette is made in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Honda RidgelineAgain keeping the status quo, the Honda Ridgeline maintains third place on the American Made Index. This crossover-that-looks-like-a-truck provides a better ride than a traditional pickup and gets an awesome lockable trunk right in the floor of the bed. And it doesn’t do the truck stuff too badly, either, as it’s able to carry 1,860 pounds of payload and tow 3,500 pounds.The Ridgeline is powered by a 3.5-liter V6 good for 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. That is channeled through a six-speed automatic transmission with available all-wheel drive. It’s built in Lincoln, Alabama. 10 Photos More From Roadshow 52 Photos Share your voice Acura RDXThe third-generation Acura RDX squeaks into the top ten list with larger proportions, plenty of interior space and better handling than its predecessor. Forward collision warning with collision mitigation braking, adaptive cruise control that works even in low-speed traffic, lane-keeping steering assist and road departure mitigation are all standard across the board. Like its MDX counterpart, the RDX is available with the A-Spec styling package.The RDX sports a 2.0-liter, turbocharged, four-cylinder engine. Output is stated at 273 horsepower and 280 pound-feet of torque, and it’s mated to a 10-speed automatic transmission. The new RDX is built in East Liberty, Ohio. 0 Car Industry General Motors Chevrolet Honda Jeep Acura Comments 2019 Nissan Maxima review: The ‘four-door sports car’ that isn’t 2019 Acura RDX A-Spec: Sharp handling, sharper looks 2019 Honda Passport: A well-rounded midsize offering 2019 Jeep Cherokee can handle the rough stuff Post a comment 2019 Honda Odyssey offers plenty of room and features for families 12 Photos Honda PilotDropping down to seventh place for 2019 is the Honda Pilot. Like its two-row Passport sibling, the three-row Pilot offers parent-focused technology like Cabin Talk as well as myriad standard driver-assistance features through the Honda Sensing tech suite. Honda’s largest crossover offers up nearly 84 cubic feet of cargo space. Honda’s 3.5-liter V6 engine shows up again, making a serviceable 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. Touring and Elite trims get a nine-speed automatic transmission while lower trims have to make do with a six-speed auto. The Honda Pilot is made in Lincoln, Alabama. Honda Acura,Enlarge ImageIt’s all in a day’s work for the Jeep Cherokee, the most American-made car in 2019. Jeep With high trade tensions looming and increasing talk of tariffs, more and more consumers are looking to buy American. Cars.com has released its annual American Made Index, showcasing companies that use the most American-sourced parts and labor in their vehicles. The results may surprise you.Cars.com analyzed more than 100 US-built vehicles for five key data points: manufacturing location, parts sourcing, US employment, engine sourcing and transmission sourcing. You might think something like the Ford F-150 would top the list, but it drops from its No. 5 spot for 2018 and out of the top 10 completely. Even the first-place holder, the Jeep Cherokee, is a pretty global product. It’s a Jeep, sure, but that brand is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, an Italian-owned business.Cars.com surveyed 1,000 people and found that half are concerned about automotive import tariffs, with 41% saying they are unsure if tariffs would make them more likely to buy American. Either way, we’re big fans of all the vehicles on this list. These days, buying American doesn’t necessarily mean sticking with a US-based automaker. Share your voice 2019 Acura MDX adds new features and an A-Spec model Concept Cars Car Industry Crossovers Coupes Tags Honda OdysseyThe feature-rich Honda Odyssey minivan also retains its number-two slot from last year’s list. While the 2019 model doesn’t see any changes from last, it’s still a darn good choice for families on the go with reconfigurable seats, Wi-Fi and an excellent rear-seat entertainment system. The Cabin Watch video system lets parents keep an eye on their little darlings without turning around in their seats, while Cabin Talk amplifies their voice so no yelling is required.The Odyssey is powered by a 3.5-liter V6 rated for 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. Most trims get a nine-speed automatic but the top Touring and Elite trims now use a 10-speed automatic with stop-start technology. The Honda Odyssey is made in Lincoln, Alabama. GMC CanyonIf you’re looking for a slightly fancier version of the Colorado that’s more focused on luxe than dirt, check out the GMC Canyon. The top Denali trim gets standard heated and ventilated front seats as well as a heated steering wheel. Maximum payload capability is 1,665 pounds while max towing is a fairly healthy 7,600 pounds.The Canyon is available with the same 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine, 3.6-liter V6 or 2.8-liter diesel as the Chevrolet Colorado. It’s also built in Wentzville, Missouri. 2019 Honda Pilot Elite: A smoother, tech-rich crossover SUV 2019 Acura NSX review: Hitting its stride 2019 GMC Canyon: A fancier Colorado 68 Photos 81 Photos 4 Photos More From Roadshow 69 Photos 26 Photos 2019 Chevrolet Corvette Grand Sport loves to hustle Acura MDXMoving up one slot to sixth place on the American Made Index is the non-hybrid variant of the Acura MDX. With its SH-AWD system, the MDX is one of the better handling midsize luxury crossovers, and for 2019 the company gives us the A-Spec treatment with a new front fascia and side skirts, 20-inch wheels, wider exhaust tips, unique gauges, a new steering wheel, carbon fiber trim and various Alcantara interior touches.However, both the standard and A-Spec models get a 3.5-liter V6 engine, rated for 290 horsepower and 267 pound-feet of torque going through a nine-speed automatic transmission. The Acura MDX is made in East Liberty, Ohio. Jeep CherokeeKeeping its top-of-the-list placement, the Jeep Cherokee is 2019’s most American-made car. Refreshed for 2019, the compact crossover now features more tech, better cargo space and a slightly tweaked look. It’s available in no fewer the nine trims, including the off-road specific Trailhawk and a fancy-pants Trailhawk Elite.For 2019, the Cherokee gets a new 2.0-liter, turbocharged, four-cylinder engine with 270 horsepower and 295 pound-feet of torque, though naturally aspirated I4 and V6 choices are also available. Regardless of engine, a nine-speed automatic transmission gets the power to the pavement — or dirt as the case may be. The Cherokee is made in Belvidere, Illinois. 2019 GMC Sierra Denali review: So close to greatness 2019 Chevrolet Colorado ZR2 Bison: A tougher off-roader 2019 Honda Ridgeline: The commuter’s pickup truck Tags Acura Honda PassportThe Honda Passport is a new (well, reborn) entry to both the Honda lineup and the American Made Index. This midsize crossover comes to the fray with great driving dynamics and plenty of tech like the standard Honda Sensing suite of active safety features. An available 8-inch touchscreen gets Apple CarPlay and Android Auto as well as a Wi-Fi hotspot.Under the hood is the stalwart 3.5-liter V6 producing 280 horsepower and 262 pound-feet of torque. However unlike the Ridgeline, the Passport sends that power through a nine-speed automatic transmission. Having said that, just like the Ridgeline, this is the only powertrain available. The Honda Passport is built in Lincoln, Alabama. Chevrolet ColoradoMaking its debut in the top 10 is the Chevrolet Colorado. Shown here in the tough ZR2 Bison off-road spec, the Chevy Colorado is an excellent truck and one of the two midsize pickups you can get with a diesel engine. Adding to the ZR2’s two-inch lift and front and rear locking differentials, the Bison gets beefier skid plates (trust me, that’s a good thing), steel bumpers and integrated recovery points. Heck, you can even get a snorkel.Base models get a 2.5-liter four-cylinder engine with a six-speed manual transmission, but a more popular choice is the 3.6-liter V6 gas engine with 308 horsepower and 275 pound-feet of torque, mated to an eight-speed automatic transmission. Meanwhile, the 2.8-liter diesel pumps out 186 horsepower and a delicious 369 pound-feet of twist and is mated to a six-speed automatic. The Chevy Colorado is built in Wentzville, Missouri. 2019 Chevy Colorado ZR2 Bison: An off-road animal 18 Photos 2019 Honda Ridgeline review: Light duty, heavy punch Enlarge ImageIf Acura’s forthcoming, nearly production-ready flagship concept looks like the Precision concept did, then it’s safe to say that it’ll make a splash in Monterey. Mullen Lowe With a couple of notable exceptions like the NSX and the last RSX, Acura has been living quite solidly at the dull end of the automotive spectrum for the past couple of decades. That started to look like it might change when the brand released the beautiful and aggressive Precision concept back in 2016.Unfortunately, the Precision concept didn’t herald any significant immediate changes, but now the rumor is that Acura is preparing to launch a new concept during this year’s Monterey Car Week that will be nearly production ready and would be a look at a soon-to-come flagship sedan, according to a report by Car & Driver published on Thursday.This new flagship concept would bear some resemblance to the long, low, sleek and suicide door-sporting Precision concept — and in our opinion, that would go a long way toward curing Acura’s lack of excitement. That would be doubly true if it threw the excellent turbo four-cylinder engine from the Civic Type R under the hood, though we wouldn’t hold our breath for that.Also included in Car & Driver’s article were hints that we might even be able to expect the second generation of Acura’s ZDX crossover coupe thing which originally ended production in 2013. Clearly, that car was ahead of its time, as has been proven by the plague of other coupe-overs to hit the market in the last year.Acura execs are allegedly looking at early designs for a new ZDX, and if that goes well, we’d expect to see one in the next few years.Acura representatives declined to comment on future products. 2010 Acura ZDX 71 Photos 2020 Cadillac XT6 first drive: Sometimes ‘more’ is more 49 Photos
2:33 Share your voice What makes this reference so special is that Stranger Things star Winona Ryder (Joyce Byers) also starred in the comedic Tim Burton ghost movie Beetlejuice. There is a bit of a time discrepancy here. Stranger Things season 3 is set in 1985, but Beetlejuice came out in 1988. Does that mean Mr. Clarke is a time traveler? That would be quite a twist. Now playing: Watch this: See all the Stranger Things season 3 photos Tags While the writers didn’t want to give any hints, they at least told us what it wasn’t. That list included Back to the Future, Jaws, Wonder Woman, posters, songs, Nancy Drew, shirts, Radio Shack, Mall Rats, Terminator, Evil Dead and Alien. They did confirm it was a pop culture movie reference.You can continue the search on your own if you think you have what it takes, or you can check out the answer, which was finally delivered by Twitter user Hackyzach. Hackyzach correctly identified the Easter egg as Beetlejuice’s tombstone, which was tucked into the town model created by science teacher Mr. Clarke. “Winner, winner, banana boat for dinner,” the writers declared. As for the prize, Hackyzach tweeted it would involve signed Stranger Things merch. Stranger Things season 3: Everything to know More Strange things TV and Movies Originally published July 8, 11:38 a.m. PT. Update, 12:41 p.m. PT: Adds correct answer and the tweet identifying it. it’s monday and we want to play a game: there’s a particular easter egg in episode 2 of s3 that you haven’t found, first person to crack it gets a prize. go! pic.twitter.com/0wfQOmNmtV— Stranger Writers (@strangerwriters) July 8, 2019 59 Photos 5 Stranger Things returned for its third season in July 2019. Netflix Stranger Things is stuffed full of ’80s pop culture references of everything from Magnum P.I. to Star Wars, but fans overlooked at least one major Easter egg. The writers room for the supernatural Netflix hit has its own Twitter account, and it teased the heck out of us mere days after the show returned for season 3. “It’s Monday and we want to play a game,” the writers said. “There’s a particular Easter egg in episode 2 of S3 that you haven’t found, first person to crack it gets a prize. Go!” The show’s fans got busy playing the guessing game, but struck out over and over. “Y’all can get it without a hint. Come on, don’t let me down,” the writers tweeted, which just made the quest all the more maddening. Comments winner, winner, banana boat for dinner https://t.co/Thw55kfS1L— Stranger Writers (@strangerwriters) July 8, 2019 Stranger Things season 3: Our biggest WTF questions 15 TV shows to watch once you’re done with season 3 Netflix
A 3D plastic representation of the Facebook logo is seen in this photo illustration May 13, 2015.Reuters file [Representational Image]In a bizarre incident, social networking giant Facebook has said that it “mistakenly deleted” CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s old posts, some of them dating back to 2007 and 2008.A spokesperson from the company reportedly said many of Zuckerberg’s old posts about Facebook can still be found on the company’s blog and in its newsroom.”A few years ago some of Mark’s posts were mistakenly deleted due to technical errors. The work required to restore them would have been extensive and not guaranteed to be successful so we didn’t do it,” CNET quoted a Facebook spokesperson as saying on Friday.The spokesperson added that they didn’t know how many total posts were deleted.The total number of vanished posts could be significantly higher, as the very nature of the issue makes it extremely difficult to make a full accounting of what exactly has gone missing over the years.”These disappearances, along with other changes Facebook has made to how it saves its archive of announcements and blog posts, make it much harder to parse the social network’s historical record.”This makes it far more difficult to hold the company, and Zuckerberg himself, accountable to past statements — particularly during a period of intense scrutiny of the company in the wake of a string of scandals,” the Business Insider said.
Damage to a store is revealed after the stolen truck, which was driven through a crowd outside a department in Stockholm. Photo: AFPFlags flew at half-mast across Stockholm on Saturday as the city slowly returned to normal a day after a truck attack that killed four people, as police said they had the suspected driver in custody.A stolen beer truck ploughed into a crowd of people at the corner of the bustling Ahlens department store and the Drottninggatan pedestrian street on Friday afternoon, above ground from Stockholm’s central subway station.Fifteen people were injured, nine of whom remained in hospital on Saturday.It was the third terror attack in Europe in two weeks, coming on the heels of assaults in London and St. Petersburg, although there has been no immediate claim of responsibility.Previous attacks using vehicles have occurred in London, Berlin and the southern French city of Nice, all of them claimed by the so-called Islamic State (IS).”Terror hits the heart of the city,” Sweden’s biggest broadsheet Dagens Nyheter headlined its front page above a picture of the truck with its front end smashed into the store.Prime Minister Stefan Lofven said he had strengthened the country’s border controls, as flags flew at half-mast at parliament, the royal palace, the government offices, and City Hall.”Terrorists want us to be afraid, want us to change our behaviour, want us to not live our lives normally, but that is what we’re going to do. So terrorists can never defeat Sweden, never,” Lofven said.City streets were empty early Saturday, slowly filling as the day wore on as things began to return to normal — apart from a heavy police presence, a rare scene in this normally tranquil country.A swelling crowd milled by the security barrier erected around the scene, many placing flowers on the ground or in the security fence.Sweden’s Crown Princess Victoria, 39, was one of those laying down a bouquet, wiping tears from her cheek.”I feel an incredible sadness, an emptiness,” she told reporters.But, she said, “society has demonstrated enormous strength and we stand together against this.”Suspected driver in custody Swedish police said a man arrested on “suspicion of a terrorist crime” was probably the truck driver.”We suspect that the man who was arrested is the perpetrator,” Stockholm police spokesman Lars Bystrom told AFP.The man was arrested “on suspicion of a terrorist crime through murder,” Karin Rosander, spokeswoman at the Swedish Prosecution Authority, said.The man was detained on Friday in Marsta, a suburb north of Stockholm. According to several media outlets, he is a 39-year-old of Uzbek origin and an IS supporter.Prosecutors did not disclose his identity, but police said his appearance “matched the description” of a photo they released of a suspect wearing a dark hoodie and military green jacket.Intelligence agency Sapo said meanwhile it was hunting for “possible accomplices or networks that may have been involved in the attack.” ‘Terrifying’ Witnesses described scenes of terror and panic on Friday.”A massive truck starts driving … and mangles everything and just drives over exactly everything,” eyewitness Rikard Gauffin told AFP.”It was so terrible and there were bodies lying everywhere… it was really terrifying,” he added.Passerby Hasan Sidi told Aftonbladet he saw two elderly women lying on the ground.He said people at the scene urged him to help one of the women who was “bleeding to death”.”One of them died… I don’t know if the other one made it,” Sidi said.The truck was towed away in the early hours of Saturday. ‘It was expected’ An attack on Stockholm was just a matter of time, the head of the Centre for Asymmetric Threat Studies at the Swedish National Defence College, Magnus Ranstorp, told AFP.”It was pretty expected, the police and intelligence agency have practised for this several times the past year… We just didn’t know when it was going to happen,” he said.Friday’s attack was the latest in a string of assaults with vehicles in Europe.The deadliest came last year in France on the July 14 Bastille Day national holiday, when a man rammed a truck into a crowd in the Mediterranean resort of Nice, killing 86 people.In December, a man hijacked a truck and slammed into shoppers at a Christmas market in Berlin, killing 12 people.In London last month, Khalid Masood, a 52-year-old convert to Islam, killed five people when he drove a car at high speed into pedestrians before launching a frenzied knife attack on a policeman guarding parliament.In 2014, IS called for attacks on citizens of Western countries and gave instructions on how they could be carried out without military equipment, using rocks or knives, or by running people over in vehicles.Friday’s attack was the second terror attack in Stockholm.In December 2010, a suicide bomber blew himself up, also on the Drottninggatan pedestrian street, lightly injuring several passersby.
Canada’s prime minister Justin Trudeau meets with US president Donald Trump during the G7 Summit in the Charlevoix town of La Malbaie, Quebec, Canada on 8 June. Photo: ReutersCanadian politicians of all stripes rallied round their prime minister on Monday after his cautious and polite defence of free trade rules drew an extraordinary personal rebuke from US president Donald Trump.The United States is Canada’s single biggest trade partner, with two-way exchanges of goods and services totalling $673.9 billion in 2017, and Washington enjoys a $8.4 billion surplus.Nevertheless, Trump appears determined to up-end the trade relationship, insisting that the US is the loser, and has demanded that the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) be renegotiated or abandoned.Prime minister Justin Trudeau’s government is in talks to save the deal and, in concert with the other major trading powers in the G7 group of nations that met in Quebec over the weekend, pushed back against Trump.And in Ottawa on Monday, International trade minister Francois-Philippe Champagne urged lawmakers to speed ratification of the Trans-Pacific Partnership that might offset losses in US trade by binding Canada closer to Asia, Australia and Latin America.In particular, Canada, Japan and the European G7 powers are outraged by Trump’s unilateral-or illegal, in their eyes-imposition of tariffs on imported steel and aluminium in the name of preserving US industry on national security grounds.‘Circus thug’Trump skipped the end of the G7 summit on Saturday and was in the air en route to his historic nuclear summit with North Korea’s Kim Jong Un when Trudeau dubbed the national security justification “insulting.”And the young Canadian leader, who has attempted to maintain a public facade of friendship with the US leader, confirmed that he would regretfully impose retaliatory tariffs on US goods from next month to offset the steel levy.Trump was infuriated by the news conference and abruptly withdrew US support for the summit’s relatively anodyne closing statement, a boilerplate invocation of the importance of multilateral trade rules.He also insulted Trudeau personally, dubbing him “very dishonest and weak” and excoriated Canada’s managed dairy market, which is a tiny part of total exchanges but is protected by a huge 270 per cent tariff.He also suggested he is again studying possible tariffs on automobiles imported from Canada, a move which would have a much more substantial hit on both economies.The venom of the exchange sent shockwaves through foreign policy circles and rattled markets, as another sign of the weakness of the Western alliance and of the threat NAFTA will collapse.As might be expected, Trudeau’s foreign minister Chrystia Freeland took his side.“Canada does not conduct its diplomacy through ad hominem attacks, we don’t think that it’s a useful or productive way to do business and perhaps we refrain particularly from ad hominem attacks when it comes to our relationship with our allies,” she declared.And the Canadian left, no friend of the American right, was quick to attack Trump’s outburst.“This is a small-minded man not fit for public office. Canada will not be pushed around by his circus thug bluster,” said Charlie Angus of the New Democratic Party.But even conservative and populist figures on the right of Canadian politics, some of them admirers of Trump’s brand of politics when it stays south of the border, rallied to their liberal premier.“We will stand shoulder to shoulder with the prime minister and the people of Canada,” said Doug Ford, the newly-elected anti-tax premier of Ontario and brother to the late crack-smoking mayor of Toronto, Rob Ford.Trade ‘obsession’Trump’s favourite US network Fox News invited Canada’s outspoken former conservative prime minister Stephen Harper, usually a reliable Trudeau critic, to discuss the crisis.But even he was nonplussed by Trump’s line of attack. “I don’t understand the obsession with trade relations with Canada,” he sighed.Despite his own US Trade Representative’s office confirming the trade surplus falls more than $8 billion in Washington’s favour Trump has repeatedly insisted that US workers are getting ripped off by NAFTA.Behind his claim lies a difference in how the countries’ calculate the trade figures.According to the USTR, America counts Canadian goods that are shipped to regional trading hubs within the United States and then re-exported back to Canada or Mexico as US exports.If these goods that originate in Canada and are eventually sold there without have been substantially worked upon in the United States are taken into account then Ottawa comes out the winner.Using this metric, the USTR reports, Canada can claim a $90 billion annual surplus in goods trade, although the US still has a large advantage in services.This seems to have been what Trump was referring to when he tweeted: “Fair Trade is now to be called Fool Trade if it is not Reciprocal.“According to a Canada release, they make almost 100 Billion Dollars in Trade with US (guess they were bragging and got caught!). Minimum is 17B.”‘Divisive and personal’Wherever Trump is getting his figures from, his aggressive personal attacks and determination to torpedo a prestigious world summit on Canadian soil have done nothing to head of the threat of trade war.“I’m in complete agreement with the prime minister’s statement,” said Jason Kenney, leader of the Conservative Party in oil-exporting Alberta Province and a Harper ally.“A reasonable, balanced and firm assertion that Canada will not be bullied, and that we will retaliate if the US Administration does not end its attack on our steel exports.”In Ontario, home to many car plants that would be hit by US tariffs, Conservative leader Andrew Scheer warned that NAFTA and the cause of free trade itself is now at stake.“Divisive rhetoric and personal attacks from the US administration are clearly unhelpful,” he added.
Citation: Next-generation cameras inspired by fruit flies and moths (2006, May 11) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-05-next-generation-cameras-fruit-flies-moths.html Explore further Today’s digital micro-cameras and other optical devices use lenses based on human-type single aperture eyes. These lenses, which are manufactured with macroscopic technology, do not get thinner than about 5 mm. However, insects such as fruit flies and moths have a completely different type of eye called compound eyes to accommodate the animals’ small size and low brain processing capabilities. Compound eyes consist of up to tens of thousands of tiny sensors called “ommatidia” that detect light and sometimes color. Flies and moths see images made of a combination of inputs from the ommatidia that point in different directions, forming a large field of view while the total volume consumption remains small. To fabricate the first type of compound eye, called an apposition compound eye and found mainly in diurnal insects such as flies, the scientists used photolithography to arrange a microlens array on a thin silicon wafer. Acting as ommatidia, the microlenses could be specially tuned to improve homogenous resolution over the entire field of view. Further, the scientists found that the large focal depth of apposition compound eyes cancels the need to adjust lens focus for distant or near objects.The second type of compound eye, found mainly in nocturnal insects such as moths and deep water crustaceans such as shrimp, have greater light sensitivity than apposition compound eyes. Comprised of an array of microtelescopes, these eyes are known as superposition compound eyes or simply cluster eyes. Using reactive ion etching to transfer the microlenses onto fused silica, the scientists fabricated cluster eyes whose individual lenses also improved resolution homogeneity. Compared with apposition compound eyes, cluster eyes require thicker objectives but offer higher resolution. Both types have potential for use in tiny cameras.“Deciding between the apposition and cluster eyes depends on the required resolution vs. compactness vs. price,” said Duparre. “The apposition eye will be cheaper and smaller but have lower resolution. It thus will more work like an imaging optical sensor, while the cluster eye could actually be used to present images directly to a customer, but is more complex.”These advantages of artificial compound eyes were discovered despite one major technical drawback: both types of compound eyes were arranged on a flat surface, while the curved base of natural insect eyes offer several advantages. Hopefully, a special type of laser beam writer currently being developed could fabricate compound eyes on curved surfaces.Citation: Duparre, J. W. and Wippermann, F. C. Micro-optical artificial compound eyes. Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. 1 (2006) R1-R16.By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com The fruit fly has apposition compound eyes, which scientists have fabricated using photolithography to arrange and tune an array of microlenses. The microlenses act as “ommatidia,” the insect’s tiny eye sensors. Photo credit: IOP. Inspired by the way that nature has evolved the eyes of small insects, scientists have fabricated artificial compound eyes that could make camera lenses tiny enough to fit on credit cards or stickers. “While human eyes use a spherical volume, compound eyes use only a spherical shell, so that much of the space and weight is saved for the brain,” Jacques Duparre, coauthor with F. C. Wippermann of a recent paper in Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, told PhysOrg.com. “The arrangement allows for a large field of view, but does not require large signal processing.”Although single aperture eyes have advantages in resolution and sensitivity in large lenses, compound eyes have the potential to make more compact, robust and cheap vision systems. At the micro level, compound eyes’ individual viewing channels on curved lenses have minimal aberrations, or focusing errors that cause blurring. Cameras with compound eye lenses could have applications in many tight spaces, such as those encountered in automotive engineering, security and surveillance, and medical technology.“Thin lenses might have applications in flat panel displays, and we’re also working on another arrangement for minimal invasive surgery,” said Duparre, who is currently working on a patent for this arrangement.Scientists have studied optical lenses based on natural compound eyes for more than a hundred years, but classical macroscopic technology has not provided the necessary fabrication and assembly accuracy. For the first time, Duparre and Wippermann have fabricated and tested two different compound eye lenses using state-of-the-art micro-optics technology. Scientists fabricated an artificial apposition compound eye (center) that is significantly cheaper and smaller than a traditional 20-mm single lens objective (left) with the same magnification; and much smaller – though not quite as cheap – as a Euro cent (right). Photo credit: IOP. Researchers develop liquid-crystal-based compound lenses that work like insect eyes This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
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