Measuring assimilation

first_imgImmigrants today are integrating into U.S. society as fast or faster than those of previous generations, according to a study released Monday, with male immigrants holding down jobs at higher rates and committing fewer crimes than native-born Americans.The study, by an expert committee led by Harvard sociologist Mary Waters for the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, provides a counterpoint to some claims in the national debate on immigration. It illuminates how immigrants fare after arriving in the United States, which is important, Waters said, given that one in four Americans today is either an immigrant or a child of one.In light of the country’s policy debate on immigrants, “whether or not they’re succeeding … is an important question for the future of our society,” said Waters, the M.E. Zukerman Professor of Sociology.The two-year analysis by a committee of sociologists, economists, political scientists, geographers, and other experts reviewed existing studies on life for immigrants in the United States. In some areas of focus, Waters said, studies were scarce, so committee members turned to data from the U.S. Census Bureau and other sources.The report looked at a number of different measures — including education, occupation, residential segregation, language acquisition, poverty, health, crime rates, family type, intermarriage, and naturalization — to determine whether today’s immigrants are as successful at integrating as prior waves. The answer is yes, Waters said, though she added that assimilation takes time.“Integration is a multigenerational process.”Among its recommendations, the report suggested further study of America’s naturalization process. Only half of eligible immigrants become naturalized Americans, a far lower rate than in certain other nations, such as Canada and Australia.The study looked at immigrants and native-born Americans of similar backgrounds. For example, it compared immigrants with high educational attainment to native-born of high educational attainment, and native-born from poor backgrounds to immigrants from poor backgrounds.Overall, immigrants are more likely to be poor, 18.4 percent compared with 13.8 percent for native-born Americans. This is the case even though a greater proportion of immigrants work. The poverty rate declines over time, approximating that of the native-born in the second generation, and then falling to 11.5 percent in the third generation.Young immigrant men with low levels of education commit fewer crimes than their native-born counterparts, the report said, and foreign-born men ages 18 to 39 are jailed at one-fourth the rate of native-born men. The impact of this is felt in cities where concentrations of new immigrants align with lower crime rates, Waters said.Immigrants are in much better health than native-born Americans, with lower rates of obesity, smoking, and cancer, which all went up as they assimilated. Also, Waters said, immigrants are likelier to be raised in two-parent families than native-born Americans of similar background.“Integration is a neutral thing. They become like native-born Americans, better off or worse off,” Waters said.Illegal immigration was part of the study, though Waters said the committee didn’t take a position on the issue. One in four immigrants are undocumented, she said, but they are nonetheless undergoing integration — working, buying homes, and starting families. The study indicated that having undocumented parents has a negative effect on children, who tend to have less schooling, slower cognitive development, and, as teenagers, higher rates of depression and anxiety.One of the study’s most striking insights, Waters said, was just how powerful the assimilation process is in the United States. It works not just on immigrants, but on the rest of the population as well. One in seven marriages is across racial or ethnic lines, statistics show. According to one survey, 35 percent of Americans have close relatives of a different racial or ethnic group.Meanwhile, as has long been the case, the country as a whole, in its customs and culture, changes under the influence of immigration.“It’s really impressive how strong the force of integration is in America,” Waters said.last_img read more

Panel analyzes India’s elections

first_imgTags: bharativya janata party, BJP, CWIL, hinduism, India, india elections 2014, karie cross, panel at saint mary’s on india, pradeep naravanan, sonalini sapra, srishti agnihotri On Wednesday, Saint Mary’s hosted a panel on the 2014 elections in India as part of International Education Week, sponsored by the Center for Women’s Intercultural Leadership (CWIL) and the department of political science. The panel was called “India 2014: Assessing the Elections and Beyond.”Contributing to the panel were four presenters, including Srishti Agnihotri, a graduate student in International Human Rights Law at Notre Dame, Sonalini Sapra, assistant professor in political science at Saint Mary’s, Karie Cross, a Ph.D student in political science and peace studies at Notre Dame and Pradeep Narayanan, head of research and consultancies at Praxis Institute for Participatory Practices in India. Chair of political science at Saint Mary’s Marc Belanger helped to facilitate the discussion.Agnihotri began the panel discussion as the first presenter, focusing on the context surrounding India’s 2014 elections. She spoke of India as a multi-party parliamentary system, with 543 available seats in the congress. The significance of this election was due to the fact that the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) won the majority, holding 282 seats, which has not happened since 1984, Agnihotri said.The reason the BJP was able to get so many seats was due to “changes that arose between the 2009 election and the 2014 election that diminished public opinion of the government,” which “was due to a series of a high-profile scandals,” she said.“The public began to see the regime as corrupt, and what could have been defended by public policy, the government seemed to be completely mute,” Agnihotri said.Agnihotri also brought up the reasons the leader of the BJP, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayeeas, was able to gain popularity.“He was a self-made man, who had very good public speaking skills … but under his leadership, the BJP was able to channel the sense of dissatisfaction, due to corruption, inflation and the increase of rapings, into political action,” she said.The second panelist presenter, Cross, changed the tone of the panel to focus on religion in India’s election, describing the significance of Hindu nationalism and how it had been utilized by politics in the past.Cross discussed how there were two ideas about running the government in regards to Hindu nationalism.“Hinduism is not just a religion, but it gives India its distinctive national identity … and that others do not have to convert but adapt and accept the sameness of the nation’s interest,” Cross said. “This was against the idea that all religions should have an equal pull in the state and focus on diversity and inclusion.“There would be a problem because the minorities could lose their security to practice their own cultures” Cross said. “Incidents of religious tensions and riots in Gujarat that were possibly led by the new PM, Modi, reveal this loss of security. This was overshadowed by Modi’s focus on economic growth, which was largely accepted, and shows that the economy is being more valued than humanity.”Cross also looked to different areas in India, such as the northeast, where there is an even larger diversity.“Problems of sameness promoted by Hindu Nationalism reveals that the conditions of people in the northeast will degenerate,” she said.Narayanan, who joined the discussion via Skype, spoke of the different influences effecting participation and voters in the 2014 Indian election.“What is shaping elections today is a bit of danger, which comes from the Americanization of the Indian election … the rise of the power of money and how it is able to influence how politics are brought out into the public domain and change the narration of debates,” Narayanan said. “My main point is that in 2009, the government was not voted out by the people, because big corporate lobbies were in favor of the government.”According to Narayanan, corruption within the system stems from inequity, which is the main problem.“Because corruption is being addressed without looking at equity technical solutions being made cannot fix the situation,” he said.The final presenter, Sapra, described the environmental policies in the post-election period.“I want to emphasize that it is not just the modern government that has not taken environmental policy seriously, but previous governments as well did not fulfill any of their promises of environment sustainability,” Sapra said.Sapra spoke of how the government’s focus on economic development overshadowed the environmental concerns.“Businesses would more often support the focus of economic interest, but many critics would stress that it is hard to separate the environmental concerns from the needs of the Indian people,” she said. “Coal mining is increasing in India, which is affecting more people because it is by the process of strip mining.“India has long maintained that it has not been largely responsible for emissions thus far and so should be able to industrialize,” she said.However, Sapra spoke of positive initiatives to clean up India that can act as generative solutions to the environmental concerns.“By 2019, the holy city of Varanasi is to be cleaned … it is interesting how initiatives are being taken up by local communities and religion,” she said.last_img read more

Transfer rumours and paper review – Tuesday, August 25

first_imgHere’s the top transfer-related stories in Tuesday’s newspapers…Manchester United will press on with a £240million pursuit of Barcelona’s Brazilian superstar Neymar — and want him to be the global face of the club. (The Sun)Meanwhile, Red Devils boss Louis van Gaal  has been told by Real Madrid that Welsh star Gareth Bale is not for sale at any price. (Daily Mail)Chelsea are determined to land Juventus star Paul Pogba in a £70million deal before the window shuts. Blues bosses have become worried by the midfield partnership of Nemanja Matic and Cesc Fabregas, with the defending champions conceding seven goal in their opening three Premier League games. (Evening Standard)Arsene Wenger is plotting a stunning late move for Paris Saint-German’s, with the Gunners still desperate to sign a top class striker this summer. (Daily Mirror)Despite halting a move for former QPR midfielder Joey Barton last week, West Ham are planning to resurrect the deal, with Chelsea winger Victor Moses also a target as Slaven Bilic looks to add wide options to his side. (Evening Standard)The Hammers’ bid to sign Emmanuel Adebayor on loan from Tottenham is also back on. Spurs are prepared to pay a significant portion of his wages to get him out of White Hart Lane. (Daily Mirror)And here’s the latest headlines…MANCHESTER UNITED:West Ham target season loan move for Man United starlet Adnan JanuzajBarcelona boss Luis Enrique tight lipped over Neymar to Manchester United rumoursMan United blow! Thomas Muller not for sale, insists Bayern Munich directorAjax goalkeeper Jasper Cillessen rules out replacing David De Gea at Manchester UnitedWest Brom target Manchester United defender Jonny Evans as Joleon Lescott is told he can leaveLIVERPOOL:Mario Balotelli set to seal AC Milan switch after Liverpool agree to pay part of striker’s wagesBlow for Liverpool! Inter Milan leading chase for Anfield-linked LavezziTOTTENHAM:Tottenham target Saido Berahino chased by 15 clubs, claims West Brom boss Tony PulisWest Brom reject transfer request by Saido Berahino amid Tottenham linksOTHER:Exclusive – Kop idol Jamie Carragher urges John Stones to reject Chelsea and stay at EvertonKevin De Bruyne: Bayern Munich rule out rivalling Manchester City for £50m-rated Belgian starArsenal and Chelsea set to miss out as Serie A side Bologna close on £5m starletWest Ham transfer news: Juventus striker Simone Zaza lined up for Upton Park loan switchEverton and West Ham chase Roma forward Juan IturbeFormer Swansea midfielder Jonathan de Guzman close to Sunderland loan moveClaudio Ranieri: In-from Leicester star Riyad Mahrez not for sale at any priceNorwich will not sell Lewis Grabban to ‘direct rivals’ after two Bournemouth bidsBEST OF SOCIAL MEDIA:Arsenal blow! Karim Benzema rubbishes exit rumours claiming Real Madrid is his ‘home’last_img read more