Police in gun control study

first_img Previous Article Next Article Leggettbased her research on an approach called attribution theory, which looks atwhat people attribute as being the cause of certain events. In theinteractive tests, the officers had to react to different scenarios involvingcriminals and members of the public. They had to decide when to shoot laserguns at filmed images, which included bank robbers. Police in gun control studyOn 24 Apr 2001 in Police, Personnel Today Comments are closed. They thenanswered a questionnaire, which asked how they could explain the negative andpositive events that had happened in the tests. Theresearch results showed that people who think they are in control of asituation are less likely to react with an extreme or negative response.center_img Leggettsaid, “If officers see themselves as being in control they are likely toperform better.” GwentPolice are interested in continuing the research, which Leggett believes couldbe used by police forces to identify which officers are suitable for firearms. JaniceLeggett, a forensic clinical psychologist for Bath and North East SomersetPrimary Care Trust, analysed how 54 Gwent police officers, who were being trainedin the use of firearms, reacted in conflict situations. The way policeforces select officers for firearms duty could be transformed as a result ofnew research. Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

Employers welcome move to tame tribunal spiral

first_imgEmployers welcome move to tame tribunal spiralOn 31 Jul 2001 in Vexatious claims, Personnel Today Plans to reform the tribunal system have been met with relief from employerbodies. For them, the radical proposals hold the key to establishing effectivecompany grievance procedures and tackling the claims explosion.  By Ben WillmottProposals announced by the DTI to reform the employment tribunal system havereceived an enthusiastic welcome from employers. The CIPD called the plans “a watershed” and the CBI, BritishChambers of Commerce and the Engineering Employers’ Federation have givenbacking to the government initiative (News, 24 July). Employment relations minister Alan Johnson, who announced the proposals,believes they will promote conciliation in the workplace and put a brake on thesoaring number of employment tribunals. Figures released by the Employment Tribunals Service show that applicationsfor employment tribunals have increased from 43,243 in 1990-91 to more than130,000 last year. “More than three in five applications to tribunals comefrom applicants who have not attempted to resolve the problem directly withtheir employer first. Many of the disputes concerned could potentially havebeen resolved before they reached the tribunal stage. They are often minordisagreements that escalate,” said Johnson. The proposals published in a consultation document would give employmenttribunals the power to penalise employers and employees if they fail to useinternal grievance procedures as a first step in any rift. The Government also wants to charge employees for making tribunalapplications, which they would get back if their claim was successful. Peter Martin, director of employment for the EEF, whose members haveexperienced a 50 per cent increase in the number of claims submitted since1998, says the DTI’s plans will prove very helpful. He told Personnel Today that the organisation’s lawyers had handled morethan 3,000 claims on behalf of employers last year, yet only 6 per cent ofcases were upheld. “There is widespread concern among employers over the ever-increasingnumber of employment tribunal cases. Government must act swiftly and firmly toensure that no claim proceeds to tribunal without proper attempts to resolvethe dispute first,” said Martin. The EEF would like to see greater emphasis on promoting Acas as a means ofresolving disputes, with additional resources being allocated to thedevelopment of the service. CBI deputy director general John Cridland is confident the DTI’s plans fortribunal reform will help avoid unnecessary tribunal cases but not handicapindividuals who are pursuing legitimate grievances. He does not think it unreasonable to charge employees before they are ableto use the tribunal system. “There is plenty of evidence of the employment tribunal process gettingout of control. Given the record number of cases, the Government is right tothink radically about employment tribunal reform and better dispute resolutionwithin companies “These are reasonable ideas which should reduce the continual spiral ofclaims to employment tribunals without threatening anyone’s right tojustice,” said Cridland. The government review will create a more efficient employment tribunalprocess and encourage better handling of disputes in the workplace, accordingto the BCC. David Lennan, BCC director general, claims the Government has responded tothe organisation’s calls for a system that allows employers and employees moreopportunities to resolve disagreements before the tribunal machinery is set inmotion. “It is a ridiculous and costly way of resolving disputes when anemployer has to answer a complaint through a tribunal before having anopportunity to discuss the dispute internally,” said Lennan. The CIPD described the DTI’s reform plans as a watershed in the Government’sapproach to resolving issues about employment rights. Mike Emmott, CIPD employee relations adviser, feels the proposals willenable workplace disputes to be tackled at an earlier stage and more flexibly. “We share the Government’s belief that, where an employee is not happywith the way in which they are being treated by the employer, the issue shouldas far as possible be resolved in the workplace. “We welcome the Government’s recognition that it is preferable to dealwith issues on a voluntary basis rather than have recourse to legalenforcement. It cannot be right that in two-thirds of all complaints toemployment tribunals, the first an employer knows about it is when the tribunalapplication is lodged.” But The Industrial Society and the TUC are both opposed to the tribunalreform proposals, claiming that they would unfairly penalise workers. “Charging tribunal applicants is not the way forward. It willdiscriminate against low earners and ration justice to the better-off,”said Patrick Burns, head of policy at The Industrial Society, Burns is also unhappy that the Government has not increased funding forAcas, which he says already has a proven record of conciliating cases beforethey get to tribunal. “A major expansion in Acas services would repay the Government’sinvestment by curbing the employment tribunal explosion, while helpingemployers install the kind of procedures that ensure problems don’t turn intodisputes.” TUC general secretary Bill Morris commented, “Plans to charge employeeswho seek to take cases to employment tribunals are yet another punitive attackon workers seeking justice.” Road to reform: steps to shake up the system– All organisations are to have dispute resolution procedures in place– Claimants will be charged for use of the employment tribunal system(exemptions for those on benefits and in cases of genuine need)– Awards will be increased against employers and reduced for staff if eitherparty has not used internal grievance procedures – Improvements will be made to the existing statutory requirements foremployers to provide a written statement of employment terms to employees(currently businesses with fewer than 20 employees are exempt)– There will be a limited extension to the time limit for lodging tribunalclaims where an internal disciplinary or grievance procedure is still in play –in order to increase the chance of an early resolution– A fixed period of conciliation will ensure both parties make every effortto come to a settlement– A limited amendment to unfair dismissal legislation will allow employmenttribunals to disregard minor procedural errors by employers, provided sucherrors have made no difference in practice and the dismissal is otherwise fair– A fast-track system will be introduced for certain jurisdictions (such asunlawful pay deductions and breach of contract)– Tribunals will be allowed the discretion to award wasted non legal costs(such as a party’s overnight expenses) in circumstances where a party has actedvexatiously– Presidents of employment tribunals will issue practice directions toachieve greater consistency throughout the countryA background paper on dispute resolution and employment tribunals isavailable at www.dti.gov.uk/er/individual/et.htmResponses must be returned to the DTI by 8 October New laws designed to weed out weak claims in the employment tribunal systemcame into force on 16 July. The maximum deposit which tribunals can impose as aprecondition of continuing a case where the tribunal believes a claimant has noreal chance of success has been increased from £150 to £500 and the award levelhas been increased from £500 to £10,000Feedback from the professionMike Taylor, group HR director for Lorne Stewart, welcomes most ofthe proposals for tribunal reform but he thinks there should be more scope foremployers to recover their costs if they have been forced to defend a vexatiousclaim.”I think these proposals will help but I am disappointed that theGovernment is not planning to introduce recovery of costs as a generalprinciple,” he said.Taylor is also opposed to plans to extend the time limit for lodgingtribunal claims when a company’s disciplinary procedure is still in play.Philippa Harrison, HR manager for Britannia, wants the DTI to take aneven tougher line on employees who make tribunal applications without firstgoing through employers’ internal grievance procedures.She explained, “If an employer has a proper procedure in place and theemployee is aware of that process but there is no attempt to resolve the issuethen the employee should not be allowed to go through the employment tribunalsystem.”Russell McCallion, HR director for London Luton Airport, isoptimistic that the reform package will reduce the burden on the tribunalsystem. “I would be strongly in favour of most of the proposals contained inthe paper, especially those that encourage settlement of grievances at anappropriate level and force parties to realise that application to tribunalought to be a last resort rather than a first resort, as often seems to be thecase under the current environment,” he said.Marie Cleary, HR manager for Poole Hospital NHS Trust, believes theHR profession will have a major role to play if the DTI’s plans are  to be successful.”The changes present a clear message to organisations that competenthuman resources policies, procedures, advice and expertise in managing suchconciliation needs to be available,” she said.Legal The Employment Lawyers Association has highlighted a number of controversialissues in the DTI’s proposals to reform the employment tribunal system.Raymond Jeffers, chairman of the legislative and policy committee at theELA, believes the consultation paper is a positive document but he is concernedabout new rules concerning staff contracts and procedural errors.He told Personnel Today, “One suggestion is that tribunals would beable to make an additional award to reflect the absence of a written statementof employment – that is, the statutory obligation upon employers to providewritten particulars.”However, if the absence of written particulars was not to thedetriment of the employee, one might question why the employee should beawarded compensation. Further, how do you value – in compensatory terms – theabsence of a written statement?”Jeffers is also dubious about the plan to remove the Polkey rule which wouldmean employers could still win unfair dismissal cases if they have made minorprocedural errors, providing the mistakes made would have made no difference.He added, “Employees might query why employers are seemingly beinggiven a green light to ignore procedure. Also, this proposal seems somewhatinconsistent with an earlier proposal in the consultation document whichpromotes the use of disciplinary and grievance procedures.”Makbool Javaid, a partner with DLA, thinks that the proposal which wouldhave the biggest impact is the plan to allow tribunal presidents to issuepractice directions in order to achieve greater consistency throughout thecountry.He said, “First, this will help introduce consistency throughout thecountry and, second, it will give tribunal chairmen guidance about using thepowers they now have. It is all very well having the power, but if you don’tuse it then it is not going to get you very far.”Javaid is not sure that giving tribunals power to alter awards whereemployers or employees have not used an internal grievance procedure will beworkable or fair.Javaid explained, “The person the employee has the grievance againstcould be well connected in the company and so they might feel they will not geta fair hearing from the internal disciplinary procedure.” Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

CIPD hopeful of workable rules on covert monitoring

first_imgEmployers are optimistic that they will no longer have to automatically contact the police before the covert monitoring of staff as the final draft on guidance claimed.Employer bodies believe they won a significant victory at the last meeting with the Information Commission on 16 April to change to final draft code.The CIPD’s Diane Sinclair said that the Information Commission had accepted that it was impractical for employers to contact the police over all covert monitoring.She said many employers would want to monitor for soft drug abuse, for example, but would not want to involve the police.The Information Commission acknowledged that covert monitoring of some types of offence would not be in breach of the Data Protection Act, but has yet to decide when police must be involved.David Smith, said: “It is an area that we have been looking at again. Covert monitoring is a serious intrusion of privacy, which is why we originally included the need to contact the police.“Members at the consultation said that even for serious criminal offences they may want to deal with them internally.” Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. CIPD hopeful of workable rules on covert monitoringOn 30 Apr 2002 in Personnel Today Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

At-a-glance guide to the new data protection monitoring code

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. At-a-glance guide to the new data protection monitoring codeOn 17 Jun 2003 in Personnel Today Mark Mansell and Lucy Baldwinson from law firm Allen & Overy outlinewhat you need to do to comply with the monitoring codeThe monitoring section of the Data Protection Code was released byInformation Commissioner Richard Thomas last week. What do you need to do tocomply? Employers must take steps to comply with this Code if they carry out anyworkplace monitoring that goes beyond one individual simply watching another.If monitoring involves manual recording or automated processing of personalinformation it must be carried out fairly and lawfully. There is no singledefinition of monitoring, but it can include activities such as taping phonecalls for training purposes, or checking workers’ e-mails and internet use foraccess to pornography. As an immediate response to the Code, employers should do a quick audit oftheir monitoring activities. They should then conduct an impact assessment toestablish whether their monitoring is lawful in terms of data protectioncompliance. This assessment involves the following steps: – Identify the purpose(s) of monitoring and the benefits it is likely todeliver – Identify any likely adverse impact – Consider alternatives to monitoring or less intrusive ways it could becarried out – Take into account obligations arising from monitoring, such as notifyingstaff about monitoring arrangements, keeping the gathered information secure,and the implications of individuals’ rights to accessing collected information – Judge whether monitoring is justified Employers should also double-check that staff are aware of the nature,extent and reasons for monitoring, unless covert monitoring can be justified. The general approach under the Code is that employers can carry outworkplace monitoring provided the right balance is struck between the legitimateexpectations of staff and the interests of employers. How do you go about managing compliance on a long-term basis? The nature and size of the organisation will influence what is reasonable toexpect of the systems employers put in place to manage data protectioncompliance. The new Data Protection Code’s recommendations include thefollowing: – Designate one person to take responsibility for ensuring employmentpolicies and procedures comply with data protection legislation – Carry out a personal data audit to highlight any gaps in data protectioncompliance that need to be remedied – Ensure line managers and staff are made aware of their data protectionresponsibilities and potential liabilities through guidance notes and training – Check the firm has a valid and up-to-date notification in the InformationCommissioner’s register of data controllers – Consult workers and/or staff representatives, where appropriate, over thedevelopment of employment practices and policies that involve processingpersonal information about workers – Conduct an impact assessment to ensure all monitoring activities are fairand lawful We often record our workers’ phone calls for training purposes. Can wecontinue to do this under the Code? Yes, but certain conditions must be satisfied. Recording staff telephonecalls (as well as intercepting e-mails, in the course of transmission) issubject to the Regulatory of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIP) and the LawfulBusiness Practice Regulations (LBP Regulations), as well as data protectionlegislation. Provided the call is being monitored for training purposes andworkers have been notified in advance, recording will be allowed under RIP andthe LBP Regulations. For the purposes of data protection, the Code recommends carrying out animpact assessment to determine whether the benefits justify the adverse impact.If so, inform workers about the nature and extent of monitoring. In addition,the Code requires those making calls to/receiving calls from workers to be informedof any monitoring and its purpose, unless this is obvious. This could be doneby a recorded message, or by staff telling callers that their conversations maybe monitored. Can we read workers’ e-mails when they are away to make sure thatbusiness-related issues are not left to languish unattended? Yes, but the Code advises that if it is necessary to check e-mail accountsin a worker’s absence, make sure they know this will happen. Where practicable,the Code recommends that those sending e-mails to staff are also made aware ofany monitoring and the purpose behind it. The employer is advised to encourage the use of a marking system to helpprotect private or personal communications. Where possible, monitoring shouldbe confined to the address or ‘subject’ of an e-mail. The Code requiresemployers to avoid opening e-mails, particularly those that are clearly privateor personal, unless there is a valid and defined reason to examine the content.We would like to monitor internet use as there have been severalinstances of staff downloading pornography. Can we do this? Yes, the Code does permit the monitoring of internet access. However, itrecommends carrying out an impact assessment to ensure the benefits are notoutweighed by any adverse impact. It also requires staff to be informed of thenature and extent of all internet monitoring, as well as the extent to whichinformation about internet use is retained and for how long. Generally, it is advisable to set out explicitly in a policy document whatis permitted use and abuse of an employer’s internet and communicationsfacilities. The Code gives guidance on the basic contents that should beincluded in a communications policy. There is a suspicion that some staff are buying and selling drugs in thetoilets. Can we install a secret camera to catch them? What happens if wenotice some other misconduct in the course of filming? According to the Code, covert monitoring should only be used in exceptionalcircumstances, such as where there are grounds for suspecting criminal orequivalent malpractice. It must be strictly targeted at obtaining evidencewithin a set timeframe, and should normally be authorised by senior management.Covert monitoring in private places, such as toilets or a private office, iseven more restrictive under the Code, as it requires this should be confined tocases of suspicion of serious crime, where there is also an intention toinvolve the police. A suspicion of drug dealing is likely to equate tosuspicion of a serious crime. Any other information collected in the course of covert monitoring should bedisregarded according to the Code, unless it reveals information that noreasonable employer could be expected to ignore – for example where it concernsother criminal activity or equivalent malpractice. Can we obtain workers’ consent to all forms of monitoring with or withouttheir prior knowledge? The Code is moving away from using consent as a means of justifyingmonitoring. This reflects the European approach which stipulates that consentmust be ‘freely given’. The Code recognises this may not always be the case inthe employment context, and consent can be withdrawn at any time. Accordingly, it may be safer for employers to ensure that their monitoringactivities can be justified on the basis of an impact assessment – in whichcase consent is generally not needed to monitor staff. What happens if an employer’s activities don’t comply with the Code? The Code sets out the Information Commissioner’s recommendations as to how thelegal requirements of the DPA 1998 can be satisfied. However, there may bealternative ways of meeting these obligations that are not contained in theCode. Non-compliance does not mean automatic non-compliance with the DPA 1998.Only breaches of the DPA 1998 will trigger enforcement action. However, if the employer does not take any steps towards data protectioncompliance, there is a strong likelihood that it will be breaking the law. www.informationcommissioner.gov.uk Comments are closed. 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Good response to job ads spooks MI5 paymasters

first_imgGood response to job ads spooks MI5 paymastersOn 23 Mar 2004 in Personnel Today More than 4,000 people have reportedly answered the Government’s call formore secret agents to help with the UK’s ongoing fight against terrorism. The would-be spies present the recruitment agency being used by MI5 with ahuge challenge in selecting the right people and filtering out unsuitableapplicants. Diversity will also be a key issue, with foreign language speakers andethnic minorities thought to be desperately needed in the fight againstAl-Queda. Earlier this month, home secretary David Blunkett announced a majorrecruitment drive at MI5 which is now looking to hire an extra 1,000intelligence officers. However, former MI5 intelligence officer and whistleblower David Shaylercriticised the agency’s HR practices and claims its upper class image is welljustified. “Intelligence officers tend to be public school and Oxbridgeeducated,” he said. He said the entire HR function should be outsourced to improve the way MI5deals with personnel issues. www.mi5.gov.ukTo see our special feature on MI5 go to www.personneltoday.com/goto/22906How spooky can you get?Have you got what it takes to be an MI5 spook? With the Government lookingfor 1,000 extra intelligence officers, Personnel Today has teamed up withpsychometric testing experts Personality Assessment Solutions to devise a testto identify if you’ve got the aptitude to serve queen and country in secret.We have studied the websites of MI5 to try to identify whatpersonality traits and behaviours are associated with success in the‘intelligence’ community. We then related those traits and behaviours to ‘TheBig Five Personality Model’ and created a short test to measure them.Although we can’t promise respondents an actual job at MI5we’ve got the next best thing. The person with the closest match to a secretservice recruit can either enjoy a 007-style BMW driving experience atRockingham race course or be pampered like a Bond girl on a deluxe spa day.Think you’ve got what it takes? Thentake the test. GO TO www.testsonthenet.com/mi5.htmFor terms and conditions visit: www.personneltoday.com/goto/22907 Comments are closed. Previous Article Next Article Related posts:No related photos.last_img read more

Big landlords invest $60M in “tenant experience” startup HqO

first_img Full Name* The U.S. office vacancy rate rose to 17.7 percent at the end of 2020, compared to 16.8 percent at the end of 2019, according to Moody’s and CWCapital. In New York City, asking rents fell by 1 percent and effective rents by 2.4 percent. Moody’s has predicted the market will suffer for another three years before starting to ease in 2024.HqO manages more than 150 million square feet, and the company said it tripled its revenue over the past 12 months. The new financing will allow it to expand in existing markets, including Boston, New York, London and Paris. It also plans to launch in cities on the West Coast and in Toronto.Its 60 commercial clients include Columbia Property Trust, Vornado Realty Trust, Jamestown L.P. and Hudson Pacific Properties.In a statement, Insight Partners’ AJ Malhotra said HqO helped landlords and managers “adjust to the challenges of the pandemic” as many grappled with questions of how and when to reopen offices.HqO isn’t the only one building so-called tenant experience apps. Office-leasing startup VTS said last month that it planned to buy Rise Buildings, an app to monitor workplace movement, for $100 million. The Chicago-based startup is used in 350 buildings spanning 130 million square feet of space.Toronto-based Lane raised $10 million in May. The startup has an app to facilitate deliveries, book event space, handle maintenance requests and communicate with tenants.Contact E.B. Solomont office marketProptechstartup Email Address* Message* Tags HqO CEO Chase Garbarino (HqO via Facebook)Commercial real estate firms Cushman & Wakefield, JLL and DivcoWest are betting on a “tenant experience” startup to help get workers back to their offices.Boston-based HqO said Wednesday that it closed a $60 million Series C. Cushman was a new investor in the company, along with Suffolk Capital and PruVen Capital. Prior backers JLL, DivcoWest, Accomplice, Insight Partners, Navitas Capital, Allegion Ventures and the Pagliuca family office also participated. The round brings HqO’s total funding to $106.9 million.HqO was founded in 2018 by Kevin McCarthy, Chase Garbarino and Greg Gomer, who previously started AmericanInno, a digital events business acquired by Advance Publications in 2015.HqO’s software platform gives landlords the ability to manage tenant-facing tech and amenities in one place. It also has a tenant app, analytics tool and marketplace.ADVERTISEMENTIn a statement, Garbarino, HqO’s CEO, said the round comes with strategic partnerships with commercial real estate players. That network will set up HqO “for unprecedented growth as the world returns to offices,” he added.Read moreHqO closes $34.2M funding round VTS to acquire Rise Buildings for $100M Real estate’s surveillance state Share via Shortlink Share on FacebookShare on TwitterShare on LinkedinShare via Email Share via Shortlinklast_img read more

Mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions

first_imgWe review the distributions and functions of mycorrhizas and dark septate root endophytes in polar regions. Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are present in the Arctic and Antarctic to 82 ºN and 63 ºS, respectively, with fine endophyte being the dominant form of AM in roots at higher latitudes. Ecto- (ECM) and ericoid (ERM) mycorrhizas both occur in the Arctic to 79 ºN, owing to the presence of species of Salix, Dryas, Vaccinium and Cassiope to this latitude. ECM and ERM are not present in Antarctic ecosystems, owing to an absence of suitable hosts. Arbutoid and orchid mycorrhizas are infrequent in the Arctic, whilst the latter is present at one location in the sub-Antarctic. Data from studies of AM, ECM and ERM colonisation along a latitudinal transect through the Arctic indicate that the frequency of plant species not colonised by mycorrhizas increases at higher latitudes, largely owing to an increase in non-mycorrhizal and a decrease in obligately mycorrhizal plant families at more northerly locations. A separate group of root- and rhizoid-associated fungi, the dark septate root endophytes (DSE), are widespread to 82 ºN and 77 ºS, and are apparently more frequent than mycorrhizal fungi in polar regions. The functions of DSE are largely unclear, but studies suggest beneficial effects on plant growth under defined conditions. We advocate further research into the effects of DSE on their host plants in polar regions.last_img read more

Southern Ocean deep-water carbon export enhanced by natural iron fertilization

first_imgThe addition of iron to high- nutrient, low- chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon(1-3). Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified(3). Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment(4) in the Southern Ocean, which was conducted to test the hypothesis that the observed north – south gradient in phytoplankton concentrations in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands is induced by natural iron fertilization that results in enhanced organic carbon flux to the deep ocean. We report annual particulate carbon fluxes out of the surface layer, at three kilometres below the ocean surface and to the ocean floor. We find that carbon fluxes from a highly productive, naturally iron-fertilized region of the sub- Antarctic Southern Ocean are two to three times larger than the carbon fluxes from an adjacent high-nutrient, low- chlorophyll area not fertilized by iron. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased iron supply to the glacial sub- Antarctic may have directly enhanced carbon export to the deep ocean(5). The CROZEX sequestration efficiency(6) ( the amount of carbon sequestered below the depth of winter mixing for a given iron supply) of 8,600 mol mol(-1) was 18 times greater than that of a phytoplankton bloom induced artificially by adding iron(7), but 77 times smaller than that of another bloom(8) initiated, like CROZEX, by a natural supply of iron. Large losses of purposefully added iron can explain the lower efficiency of the induced bloom(6). The discrepancy between the blooms naturally supplied with iron may result in part from an underestimate of horizontal iron supply.last_img read more

Global model of low frequency chorus (fLHR < f < 0:1fce) from multiple satellite observations

first_imgWhistler mode chorus is an important magnetospheric emission, playing a dual role in the acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons in the Earth’s outer radiation belt. Chorus is typically generated in the equatorial region in the frequencyrange 0.1 - 0.8fce, where fce is the local electron gyrofrequency. However, as the waves propagate to higher latitudes, significant wave power can occur at frequencies below 0.1fce. Since this wave power is largely omitted in current radiation belt models we construct a global model of low frequency chorus, fLHR < f < 0.1fce, using data from six satellites. We find that low frequency chorus is strongest, with an average intensity of 200 pT2, in the pre-noon sector during active conditions at mid latitudes (20o < |λm| < 50o) from 4 < L∗ < 8. Such mid-latitude, low frequency chorus wave power will contribute to the acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons and should be taken into account in radiation belt models.last_img read more

Effect of plasma density on diffusion rates due to wave particle interactions with chorus and plasmaspheric hiss: extreme event analysis

first_imgWave particle interactions play an important role in controlling the dynamics of the radiation belts. The purpose of this study is to estimate how variations in the plasma density can affect diffusion rates resulting from interactions between chorus waves and plasmaspheric hiss with energetic particles and the resulting evolution of the energetic electron population. We perform a statistical analysis of the electron density derived from the plasma wave experiment on the CRRES satellite for two magnetic local time sectors corresponding to near midnight and near noon. We present the cumulative probability distribution of the electron plasma density for three levels of magnetic activity as measured by Kp. The largest densities are seen near L* = 2.5 while the smallest occur near L* = 6. The broadest distribution, corresponding to the greatest variability, occurs near L* = 4. We calculate diffusion coefficients for plasmaspheric hiss and whistler mode chorus for extreme values of the electron density and estimate the effects on the radiation belts using the Salammbô model. At L* = 4 and L* = 6, in the low density case, using the density from the 5th percentile of the cumulative distribution function, electron energy diffusion by chorus waves is strongest at 2 MeV and increases the flux by up to 3 orders of magnitude over a period of 24 h. In contrast, in the high density case, using the density from the 95th percentile, there is little acceleration at energies above 800 keV at L* = 6, and virtually no acceleration at L* = 4. In this case the strongest energy diffusion occurs at lower energies around 400 keV where the flux at L* = 6 increases 3 orders of magnitude.last_img read more