In the years following the Spanish-American War of 1898, U.S. imperialism consolidated its political, economic and military domination over Spain’s former colony, the Philippines.The Philippine revolution had begun in earnest in 1896 as a guerilla movement against the Spanish empire. The U.S. posed as the “savior” of the people from Spanish rule, promising to usher in “democracy and liberty.” Betrayal, arrogance and subterfuge led to subjugation, despite the heroic efforts of those resisting imperialism and racism.The yoke of neocolonialism went hand in hand with feudalism and a comprador ruling class. Although Philippine nationalists fought heroically against U.S. subjugation and for authentic independence and self-determination, neocolonialism remained in the saddle.The U.S. military led a brutal pacification campaign to quell a rebellion that eventually claimed 1.5 million lives. Using tactics similar to what they did later in Vietnam, they created “strategic hamlets,” or reconcentrados. Water boarding and a scorched earth policy were the trademarks of imperialist occupation. (Bobby Tuazon, Bulatat.com)Expanding the policies of Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine from the Western Hemisphere to Asia, this burst of U.S. aggression around the turn of the century also led to the exploitation of Cuba, Puerto Rico and Hawaii for their natural resources and cheap labor. The Philippines and Hawaii would serve as a bridgehead for U.S. economic hegemony in the Asian-Pacific — what is now called “Pivoting to Asia.”The Philippines became a virtual aircraft carrier for the U.S. military in order to guarantee U.S. control throughout the Pacific. The U.S. also made sure to create and nurture a comprador and feudal elite government that would build up the armed forces of the Philippines and a large police force to oppress the people.World War II and its aftermathThe Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II led to an anti-colonial resistance movement headed by Hukbalahap Mapagpalaya ng Bayan, the People’s Liberation Army. Under the leadership of the Communist Party of the Philippines, they fought the Japanese heroically. The PLA attempt to form an alliance against Japanese rule with the U.S. Armed Forces Far East was rejected. The anti-imperialist movement had to procure its weapons from Japanese soldiers and by raiding ammunition dumps.By 1946 the PLA numbered 15,000 fighters. When the Philippines gained formal independence from the U.S. in 1947, it was on the basis of neocolonialism, allowing U.S. Naval, Air Force and Army bases throughout the islands. A pacification program as well as a counterinsurgency policy by U.S.-backed President Ramon Magsaysay hurt the movement, especially when a minority of the CPP opted for electoral struggle.The further decline of the agrarian economy, massive inflation, obscene corruption and nepotism were hallmarks of Magsaysay’s successors. President Ferdinand Marcos ruled as virtual dictator for 21 years starting in 1965. He imposed nine years of martial law, beginning in September 1972, and sponsored the Bagong Lipunan (New Society), which for all practical purposes was a neo-fascist manifesto that outlawed strikes and muzzled the press.Afraid of rising opposition to Marcos and a possible split in the military, Ronald Reagan himself told Marcos to step down in 1986. The U.S. finally opted for a more liberal-sounding and pliable candidate, Corazon Aquino.In December 1968, Jose Maria Sison reestablished the Communist Party of the Philippines. The CPP received its impetus from the massive popular unrest in the country, especially among the peasantry. In March 1969, the New People’s Army was established from the remnants of the old Hukbalahap. And in 1973 a broad popular organization was established called the National Democratic Front.Election of DuterteThis year, the Philippine presidential elections in May caused tremors in the capitalist world, especially in the U.S. The winner, Rodrigo Duterte, a “shoot from the hip” populist, describes himself as “the first president of the left.” (The Guardian, May 10) U.S. imperialism regards him as an unknown quantity, especially after a record voter turnout of more than 80 percent of Filipinos.What is critical to the U.S. military is the “Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement,” signed in 2014 with the previous Philippine government. After years of mass opposition, the Pentagon was forced to evacuate its bases in the Philippines in 1991. The EDCA allowed the U.S. to use its former military bases as staging areas, consistent with the “Pivot to Asia” of the current Obama administration.Duterte, however, has voiced opposition to the EDCA, as well as the “visiting forces” agreement regarding U.S. military cooperation with the Philippines.Professor Jose Maria Sison, chairperson of the International League of Peoples Struggle and political consultant of the National Democratic Front of the Philippines, said the following about the recent elections:“Apparently foreign monopoly interests and the local oligarchy of big compradors and landlords have advised the Aquino government that it was a better choice to desist from electoral fraud and avoid the risk of widespread and uncontrollable civil strife. They are confident that the Duterte presidency would still be financially and politically manageable by using as a lever the underdevelopment and poverty of the Philippines and the huge foreign debt and total public debt of the Philippines, amounting to more than U.S. $77 billion and Php 164 trillion respectively. …“The CPP has challenged Duterte to assert the national sovereignty of the Filipino people and defend the territorial integrity of the Philippines, to let the toiling masses of workers and peasants empower themselves against the oligarchs, to develop the Philippine economy through national industrialization and genuine land reform, to promote a patriotic and progressive culture, expand the public school system, and foster international solidarity for peace and development.” (tinyurl.com/hq4mscm)FacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare this
Jack is a junior journalism major and studio art minor from Atlanta, Georgia. He enjoys everything sports and co-runs the Blanket Coverage podcast as well as photographs for TCU360. Twitter 2020/21 NFL Exit Interviews – NFC West Facebook printIn this season’s special, Jack and Noah dive into the 2020 NFL season with all the previews and changes related to COVID-19, stadiums and uniforms. With Part 2, we go through NFC team previews before finishing with way-too-early Super Bowl LV predictions. Follow us @BlanketCovPod on Twitter and @blanketcoveragepodcast on Instagram! Linkedin Jack Wallacehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/jack-wallace/ 2021 NFL Mock Draft (Part 1) Special + posts 2021 NFL Mock Draft (Part 1) Special TCU News Now 4/28/2021 Previous articleProfessors participate in Scholar Strike to advocate for racial justiceNext article2020 College Football Season Preview Special Jack Wallace RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Jack Wallacehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/jack-wallace/ 2020/21 NFL Exit Interviews – NFC West ReddIt Linkedin TAGS2020blanket coveragefootballjack wallacenfcNFLnoah parkerpodcastspecialsportssuper bowl 2020/21 NFL Exit Interviews – NFC East ReddIt Jack Wallacehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/jack-wallace/ Jack Wallace Fort Worth’s first community fridge program helps serve vulnerable neighborhoods Twitter Jack Wallacehttps://www.tcu360.com/author/jack-wallace/ Facebook
Limerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live Facebook SoccerLimerick FCNewsSportBarrett appointed as new Limerick FC bossBy John Keogh – January 15, 2018 4435 Linkedin Limerick manager Tommy Barrett has prepared the team for the trip for Dundalk despite ongoing rumours surrounding the club’s future. Diarmuid Greene / SPORTSFILELIMERICK FC have named Tommy Barrett as the club’s new manager, replacing Neil McDonald in the role.Barrett has enjoyed success as Limerick’s U-19 manager and has now been promoted to the top job. McDonald left the club ahead of the new season to join English side Scunthorpe United.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Barrett is an ex Limerick FC player and also spent time at Shamrock Rovers and Athlone town during his career.McDonald’s former assistant, Eric Kinder, has overseen First team training for the past week with the assistance of Joe Gamble.It is not immediately clear if Kinder and Gamble have a role within Barrett’s backroom team, which he is expected to name later in the week.Limerick have been beset by problems in the off-season. The club has struggled to bring in players since securing their top flight status, with only Cian Coleman, Daniel Kearns and Danny Morrissey coming in.Only last week, Limerick FC Chairman, Pat O’Sullivan, confirmed that he is looking to sell some, or all, of his share of the League of Ireland club as he can no longer bankroll the operation.“I have been saying for quite some time that this was not possible for me in the long-term,” O’Sullivan admitted.“We have reached a point now where we have to firmly address this particular issue because some clubs have become much stronger and given the structures of our league significant finances are required of any club that wants to stay in competition with the top of the table.“At this moment in time, I am in discussion with a number of parties with a view to selling an interest in the club. That may mean 100%, but certainly, it will ensure a majority share.“Our vision is to go to Europe, but we need to fill that gap,” he added. “Hence we need to have investors, to include outside investors or strong local commercial support.”Limerick FC begin their build up on the field this Saturday when they play Galway United in a pre-season friendly at UL. Kick-off for the game is at 6:30pm. RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR WhatsApp TAGSGreatest League in the Worldleague of irelandlimerickLimerick FCMarkets FieldPost SportsoccerSuper BluesTommy Barrett Twitter Print Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival Advertisement Previous article#BREAKING Limerick singer Dolores O’Riordan dies in LondonNext articleLimerick council to install CCTV camera in Thomondgate John Keoghhttp://www.limerickpost.ie Email Limerick Artist ‘Willzee’ releases new Music Video – “A Dream of Peace” Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads Billy Lee names strong Limerick side to take on Wicklow in crucial Division 3 clash
The addition of iron to high- nutrient, low- chlorophyll regions induces phytoplankton blooms that take up carbon(1-3). Carbon export from the surface layer and, in particular, the ability of the ocean and sediments to sequester carbon for many years remains, however, poorly quantified(3). Here we report data from the CROZEX experiment(4) in the Southern Ocean, which was conducted to test the hypothesis that the observed north – south gradient in phytoplankton concentrations in the vicinity of the Crozet Islands is induced by natural iron fertilization that results in enhanced organic carbon flux to the deep ocean. We report annual particulate carbon fluxes out of the surface layer, at three kilometres below the ocean surface and to the ocean floor. We find that carbon fluxes from a highly productive, naturally iron-fertilized region of the sub- Antarctic Southern Ocean are two to three times larger than the carbon fluxes from an adjacent high-nutrient, low- chlorophyll area not fertilized by iron. Our findings support the hypothesis that increased iron supply to the glacial sub- Antarctic may have directly enhanced carbon export to the deep ocean(5). The CROZEX sequestration efficiency(6) ( the amount of carbon sequestered below the depth of winter mixing for a given iron supply) of 8,600 mol mol(-1) was 18 times greater than that of a phytoplankton bloom induced artificially by adding iron(7), but 77 times smaller than that of another bloom(8) initiated, like CROZEX, by a natural supply of iron. Large losses of purposefully added iron can explain the lower efficiency of the induced bloom(6). The discrepancy between the blooms naturally supplied with iron may result in part from an underestimate of horizontal iron supply.